Nathalie Fleck

Professeur, University Maine, Le Mans.

She is particularly interested in the management and communication of the brand and the effects of incongruence in the choice of brands. Nathalie Fleck published articles in international journals such as Psychology, Marketing, Journal of Product and Brand Management, Research and Applications in Marketing. She also adapted in French the K. L. Keller Brand Strategic Management book. She teaches Consumer Behavior and Communication in the Master’s and specialized programs.

Research Fields

  • Consumer Behavior
  • Process of Information Processing
  • Effects of Congruence and Incongruence
  • Brand Management
  • Effects of Communication, Advertising and Sponsorship


When brands use CEOs and employees as spokespersons: A framework for understanding internal endorsement, Qualitative Market Research (2019), Zeitoun V., Michel G. & Fleck N.

Brand Personification Through the Use of Spokespeople: An Exploratory Study of Ordinary Employees, CEOs, and Celebrities in Advertising, Psychology & Marketing, 2014, vol 31, 1, 84-92. (Fleck N., Michel G., Zeitoun V.)

Celebrities in Advertising: Looking for Congruence or Likability?, Psychology & Marketing, 2012, Vol. 29, Issue 9, pages 651-662. (Nathalie Fleck, Michael Korchia and Isabelle Le Roy)

Perceived congruence: Towards a clarification of the concept, its training and its measure, Research and Applications in Marketing, 2011, Vol. 26 (2), forthcoming, (Virginie Maille and Nathalie Fleck).

Thirty years of conflicting studies on the influence of congruence as perceived by the consumer : overview, limitations and avenues for research, Research and Applications in Marketing, 2010, Vol. 25 (4), 69-92, (Nathalie Fleck and Virginie Maille).

Club Med: Coping With Corporate Brand Evolution, Journal of Product and Brand Management, 2010, Vol.19 (2), 94-102, (Pascale Quester and Nathalie Fleck).

The brand: capital for the distributor , Management & Avenir, 2010, 38, 14-32, (Nathalie Fleck and Lydiane Huvé-Nabec).

Sponsorship, from an intuition to a communication strategy, Decisions Marketing, 2007, n ° 47, July-September, 7-20.

Birds of a feather flock together … Definition, role and measure of congruence: an application to sponsorship, Psychology and Marketing, 2007, Vol.24 (11), 975-1000, (Nathalie Fleck and Pascale Quester)


Challenge your customer! When atypical package designs make meaning, EMAC, 2015, Leuven, Belgium (Maille, V. and Fleck N.)

The Dual Process of Co-branded Products: Why Fit for Not All That Matters, Marketing & Innovation Symposium, 2014, Rotterdam F (N. Leck, Michel G. and Gatignon H.)

Co-branding Success: A Subtle Balance Between Perceived Credibility and Novelty Impact by Brand Relevancy and Expectancy, 41st Annual Conference of European Marketing Academy, Lisbon, May 2012, (Nathalie Fleck and Geraldine Michel)

What a strange bottle! Effects of perceived congruence of a packaging design, Acts of the 15th AMS World Marketing Congress, Reims, France, 2011, July 19-22, (Nathalie Fleck, Virginie Maille and Priya Raghubir)

Funny bottle! The effects of the perceived congruence of a packaging, Proceedings of the 10th International Trends Marketing Congress, Paris, 2011, January 20th-22nd, (Nathalie Fleck, Virginie Maille and Priya Raghubir).

How could the congruence model be co-branding effectiveness? Acts of the 39th EMAC Conference, Copenhagen, 2010, June 1-4, (Nathalie Fleck and Géraldine Michel).

Choosing a celebrity for an advertisement: the heart or the reason?, Acts of the 9th International Trends Marketing Congress, Venice, 2010, January 21st-23rd, (Nathalie Fleck and Michael Korchia)

Celebrities in advertising: looking for congruence or for likability?, Acts of ANZMAC, Melbourne, Australia, 2009, 30 November – 2 December, (Nathalie Fleck and Michael Korchia).

The brand: a capital for the distributor, Proceedings of the 12th Etienne Thil Colloquium, La Rochelle, 2009, October 8-9, (Nathalie Fleck and Lydiane Nabec).

The reactions of a brand community to the evolution of this brand: an exploratory study of Club Med, Acts of the 7th International Marketing Trends Congress, Venice, 2008, January 17-19, ( Nathalie Fleck and Pascale Quester).

Celebrities in advertising: the role of congruency, Acts of the 5th International Conference on Advertising Research, Bath, England, 2006, June 30 – July 1st, (Nathelie Fleck and Michael Korchia).

Celebrities in advertising: the role of congruence, Acts of the XXII Congress of the AFM, Nantes, 2006, May 11-12, (Nathalie Fleck and Michael Korchia).

Congruence in sponsorship: definition, role and measurement, Acts of the XXI Congress of the AFM, 19-20 May 2005, Nancy, (Nathalie Fleck, Elyette Roux and Denis Darpy).

An application of models of information processing to sponsorship: the role of congruence, Proceedings of the 1st Thematic Day of North-East of France on Marketing Communication, Nancy, 2004, March 23 .

The effects of sponsorship on branding: the role of congruence, Proceedings of the 8th Burgundy Marketing Research Day, Dijon, 2003, November 6-7, p.386-403.

The Internet Driving Forces and Barriers of Managers Within the Companies , Book of Abstracts: 7th Recent Advances in Retailing & amp; Services Science Conference (EIRASS), 2000, July 7-10, Sintra, Portugal, p.33, (Nathalie Flec, Xavier Delanglade, Elyette Roux and Michael Korchia).


Brand Strategic Management, Keller Kevin L., Fleck Nathalie, Isabelle Fontaine, Pearson, 2009 (The French adaptation of Strategic Brand Management, K.L. Keller).