This research introduces the concept of brand association centrality and distinguishes central brand associations (CBAs) and peripheral brand associations (PBAs). The first study shows that the perceived fit of a brand extension is influenced by the consistency with CBAs and PBAs. However, the brand extension consistency with CBAs positively affects consumer brand extension evaluations, while the brand extension consistency with PBAs does not have a significant effect. In the second study, we demonstrate the mediating role of perceived fit between brand extension consistency with CBAs and brand extension evaluations. The study shows that the more inconsistent the product extension is with CBAs, the more the brand’s image is altered and the faster brand evaluations deteriorate. In contrast, the brand extension inconsistency with PBAs does not affect brand evaluations.