Items and dimensions of the material self (5-point disagree-agree responses)
- I choose products and brands that will make others evaluate me favorably as a person. I like to own things that impress others*
- I tend to buy things that influence other people’s favorable opinion of me.
- I care about what my material possessions signal to others.
Materialistic evaluation of others
- I tend to evaluate others by the things they own.
- I admire people who own expensive homes, cars, and clothes*
- I like to associate with people who have an expensive lifestyle.
- I value the material objects other people own.
- Sometimes I buy things because it helps me overcome negative feelings (sadness, anxiety, frustration).
- Shopping and buying things make me feel good (happy, joyful, proud).
- Shopping and buying things are fun for me.
- I love to buy and own things.
- I have worked hard to get where I am and am entitled to the “good things in life.”
- I think that there is nothing wrong with enjoying the fruits of your labor if you can.
- I deserve to buy things to pamper myself.
- I deserve to splurge on myself every now and then.
*Items from Richins & Dawson’s scale
Source: R.P. Bagozzi, A.A. Ruvio and C. Xie, “The material self”, International Journal of Research in Marketing, 37.