Time orientation (Past/Present)
- Children should be taught well the traditions of the past.
- When conversing with my friends, I would like them to know of my past accomplishments.
- The best way to do new tasks well is to rely on what has been done in similar instances in the past.
- I like to hear my elders talk about the « old days ».
- It is important to know one’s family history.
- The longer a person works at the same place, the more he or she should be paid.
- The future is very uncertain.
- It is very important to understand what has happened in the past.
- I usually use a calendar to schedule events well ahead of time.
- Things which you do now will affect how you are treated later.
- I like to read about how others see the future.
- I like science fiction.
- When talking with friends, our interests tend to anchor around what we are going to do.
- If we work hard and plan right, things in our country will improve for those who really try.
- If a new young member has more potential to contribute to an organization, he or she should be paid more than other members in the organization.
- The future is dynamic, but we can anticipate most outcomes beforehand.
- I like to think about what I’m going to do in the future.
Ko, G., & Gentry, J. W. (1991). The development of time orientation measures for use in cross-cultural research. ACR North American Advances.